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Experimental Biophysics

Accès rapides

Accès rapides

Prochain Séminaire de la FIP :
Accéder au programme

Retrouvez toutes les informations pour vos stages :
Stages L3
Stages M1 ICFP

Actualités : Séminaire de Recherche ICFP
du 14 au 18 novembre 2022 :

Retrouvez le programme complet

Contact - Secrétariat de l’enseignement :
Tél : 01 44 32 35 60
enseignement@phys.ens.fr

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Faculty : Vincent CROQUETTE and Laurent BOURDIEU
Tutor :
Condensed Matter Physics : Option
Macroscopic Physics and Complexity : Option
Quantum Physics : Option
Theoretical Physics : Option
ECTS credits : 3
Language of instruction : English
Web site :

Description

The scope of this lecture is to present biological questions addressed experimentally by Physicists using mainly optical methods. Understanding the ultimate questions raised by biology requires developing new physical tools that we shall present.

The lecture outline is as follow :

1) Basic concepts in Biology

  • The polymer involved in living organisms. We shall discuss ideal polymer as seen by Physicists and real one with their interactions. We shall present DNA double stranded and single stranded as well as proteins. We shall discuss a simple view of their folding.
  • The classical biology tools. Separation techniques, X-ray structure of proteins, molecular biology.
  • Some fundamental of biochemistry. Enzyme kinetics, molecular interaction, relation structure/function.
  • Basic in neuroscience. Introduction to neuron physiology and the information coding mechanisms inside neurons network.

2) Experimental Biophysics.

Nowadays it is possible to manipulate or visualize single DNA molecule or single protein. This allows accessing to their individual behavior instead of ensemble average. It is also possible to manipulate a single cell and to achieve in vivo imaging with a resolution higher than normally expected from diffraction limit.

  • Micromanipulation techniques. We shall compare the variety of possible approaches : AFM, optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers, micro-pipette. We shall discuss what the importance of the force parameter is.
  • Optical microscopy. This technique has seen major improvements lately. We can distinguish at least two new outcomes :
    • Super resolution imaging. Using fluorescence it is now possible to observe a single molecule. Following a single molecule reveals the details of enzymatic diffusion and of diffusion mechanism. It is also possible to measure its location with a few tens of nm in resolution
    • In vivo imaging : Various techniques offer the possibility to image more deeply in biological tissues. Non-linear optics, coherent optical tomography and adaptive optics shall be discussed.
  • Molecular motors Many enzymes are in fact molecular motors travelling along DNA or other biological structures. We shall discuss some examples : helicases, polymerases, topoisomerases …
    Neurosciences We shall discuss the issues of imaging neurons and deciphering the neuronal activity.

Accès rapides

Prochain Séminaire de la FIP :
Accéder au programme

Retrouvez toutes les informations pour vos stages :
Stages L3
Stages M1 ICFP

Actualités : Séminaire de Recherche ICFP
du 14 au 18 novembre 2022 :

Retrouvez le programme complet

Contact - Secrétariat de l’enseignement :
Tél : 01 44 32 35 60
enseignement@phys.ens.fr

r>